particularism n : a focus on something particular
Particularism refers to a wide variety of different approaches in different fields only some of which are described here. It can refer to an exclusive devotion to the interests of one's own social group. A literary school, Particularism describes a style of writing applied to fiction, non-fiction or lyrics that indicates an attention to detail, or particulars. Particularism is often contrasted to universalism.
In discussions of multiculturalism, historian and educator Diane Ravitch draws a distinction between what she terms "pluralistic" and "particularistic" varieties. Other writers often blur or ignore this distinction; it is often difficult to discern whether advocacy for "diversity" or "multiculturalism" is intended to promote particularism or not. In some quarters, even to raise the issue is taboo.
In a long essay about multiculturalism in American education, Ravitch praises the inclusiveness of multicultural pluralism while decrying what she says as multiple flaws and failures of multicultural particularism. http://college.hmco.com/currentconflict/students/multicultural/ravitch_article/intro.html
Epistemological particularismIn the study of knowledge, particularism refers to the approach where one asks the question "What do we know?" before asking "How do we know?" The term appears in Roderick Chisholm's "The Problem of the Criterion", and in the work of his student, Ernest Sosa ("The Raft and the Pyramid: Coherence versus Foundations in the Theory of Knowledge"). Particularism is contrasted with methodism, which answers the latter question before the former.
Since the question "What do we know" implies that we know, it is fundamentally anti-skeptical.
Ethical particularismThe view that there are no moral principles, moral judgement being decided on a case by case basis, in contrast to principalism which bases such judgement on well known theories (e.g. deontology, utilitarianism). Particularism asserts there are no overriding principles applicable in every case. Jonathan Dancy is a proponent of this approach.
Political particularismA politics of group identity that trumps universal rights and therefore the rights of minorities or any other kind of “other.” In Particularism the decisive factor of politics becomes religious and ethnic identity and the interests of the communities defined by these bonds. Instead of the ideas and values of political Pluralism with its emphasis on universal rights, separation of religion and the government and an ethic of religious and ethnic tolerance.
Literary particularismAdding details to non-fiction, fiction, or song lyrics that give the work a sense of credibility and full dimension. Forebears to this genre include Anne Lamott and the 19th Century's Victor Hugo; songwriters include Phil Vassar and Dierks Bentley. Term used for literature coined by writer Howard Freeman.
- Multiculturalism: E Pluribus Plures - Diane Ravitch
- Mead on Manhattan - Howard Freeman
particularism in German: Partikularismus
particularism in Lithuanian: Partikuliarizmas
particularism in Dutch: Particularisme
particularism in Norwegian Nynorsk: Partikularisme
particularism in Polish: Partykularyzm
particularism in Finnish: Partikularismi
particularism in Swedish: Partikularism